Are You Ready Series: Earthquake Preparedness
The sudden rumble of an earthquake can catch many off guard. In a moment’s notice, these naturally occurring phenomenons have the ability to create mass movements in the form of landslides, rockslides, rockfall, liquefaction, and submarine slides. To add insult to injury, in many parts of the world, we have watched as earthquakes were the catalyst to destructive tsunamis. Although, in North America we haven’t had to deal with tsunamis, the West and East coasts are still at risk as should prepare accordingly.
Given the increase of fracking in many parts of the country, more areas are finding that earthquakes could be more common than they originally thought. Moreover, those currently living in earthquake prone areas are concerned with increased earthquake activity. Many believe that fracking is the reason for this sudden increase in earthquake activity. Oklahoma, once a predominantly quiet state for earthquake activity has now become the second highest state for earthquakes, beaten only by California; and many believe that fracking is the reason. (Source)
Many have grown concerned of the New Madrid fault line. This is a major zone for seismic activity a prolific source of intraplate earthquakes in the southern and midwestern United States. Did you know the largest earthquakes felt in the United States were along the New Madrid Fault in Missouri, where a 3-month-long series of quakes from 1811 to 1812 included three quakes larger than a magnitude of 8 on the Richter Scale. These earthquakes were felt over the entire eastern United States (over 2 million square miles), with Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Alabama, Arkansas, and Mississippi experiencing the strongest ground shaking. In fact, the shaking was so intense that it caused the Mississippi river to flow backwards!
Prepare Ahead of the Disaster
For those that live in earthquake prone areas, preparing ahead of time will keep a person as safe as possible and help you adapt more fluidly to the situations and the turmoil that earthquakes bring.
Although earthquakes give little to no warning, scientists have developed a warning system to alert citizens. Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) uses existing seismic networks to detect earthquakes rapidly and send a warning ahead of destructive seismic waves.
Create an Emergency Plan
When an unexpected event happens, many are confused and do not know what to do. Having a set disaster plan in place can help members of the family get to safety. Based on the map provided, estimate what size earthquakes are likely to occur in your area. Further, it is important to research local emergency management (American Red Cross, City Disaster Services, etc) systems and know what their disaster protocols are. This will help you learn what to expect during a disaster. Children should also know and feel comfortable using emergency communication devices. An important consideration is to teach older children how to turn off gas and water pipes.
Have an emergency plan in place. This will help family members know exactly where to go and what to do. The emergency plan should have a meeting place designated in the event that family members are separated. Additionally, having a central contact outside of the disaster area that can relay messages can help a family stay in touch if separated.
Look for any hazards in the home. Most earthquake-related injuries result from collapsing walls, flying glass, and falling objects. Do as much preparation as possible to the home in order to secure the area as much as possible.
- Place heavy or bulkier items on lower shelves.
- Cabinets and pantries where breakable items are stores should have latches on them. Additionally, any poisonous material, such as fertilizers or pesticides should be stored in a locked area as well.
- Secure shelves to walls.
- Brace overhead light fixtures.
- Repair any defective electrical wiring or leaking gas connections. If there are damages done to the ceiling or foundation, get an expert opinion about any structural defects.
- Secure the water heater by strapping it to wall studs.
- Avoid hanging pictures and heavy mirrors over beds, couches or where people tend to congregate.
Disaster Food Supplies
Having shelf stable foods that require little or no fuel for preparation will be helpful during an emergency situation. See the list below and make a list of emergency foods to stock up on.
Water and Food
Store 3-days worth of potable water in plastic containers. Another method is to freeze water in plastic soda containers. FEMA recommends that a person should have 1-gallon of water per person for at least 3 days.
Stockpile a 3 day supply of non-perishable items such as canned goods, dehydrated foods, high energy foods such as granola bars, power bars, trail mix and cereals. Try and find foods that do not require much water to prepare them. See this 72 hour menu plan for more information. Ensure that certain foods are stored away for family members with special needs.
Keeping a well stocked medical supply can come in handy if someone has a injury. First aid kits can be assembled at home and include all of the basic first aid items that may be needed. A list of complete first aid items can be seen here.
Your preparedness tools are your life line during emergencies. The tools you choose should be ones that you can depend on to assist in meeting your basic survival needs. Without them, you could be ill-equipped in a survival situation. Ensure that disaster tools are stored in a centralized location in order for you to get to them during a time sensitive manner. Some suggested emergency tools are:
- A crescent and pipe wrench to turn off gas and water supplies.
- Propane stove or off grid cooking source
- Fire extinguisher (ABC variety)
- Battery operated radio
- Can opener (non electric)
- Duct tape
- Multipurpose tool
- Waterproof matches
- Tube tent or emergency shelter
- Extra cash
- Trash bags
- Signal flare
- Survival manual
In the case that a person has to evacuate, having a prepared 72 hour kit or bug out bag will expedite the process of leaving as well as keeping things running as smoothly as possible. A 72 hour bag should all items necessary to survive for 3 days. When preparing a bag keep the main surviving points is mind (water, food, shelter, clothing). Having a separate bug out bag for the vehicle will also come in handy in the event that someone has to leave their home immediately following a sudden emergency.
Preparing for an Earthquake
Because earthquakes do not provide much warning, it is best to prepare prior to the onset of this type of emergency. Preparing survival tools, emergency food and water, communication devices, first aid and pre-determined safety zones that family members can meet at will ensure that all family members are safe. Some safety zones are safer than others, so read these important safety tips for indoor safety and outdoor safety.
Indoor safety zones include:
- DROP to the ground; take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other piece of furniture; and HOLD ON until the shaking stops. If there isn’t a table or desk near you, cover your face and head with your arms and crouch in an inside corner of the building.
- Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, such as lighting fixtures or furniture.
Stay in bed if you are there when the earthquake strikes. Hold on and protect your head with a pillow, unless you are under a heavy light fixture that could fall. In that case, move to the nearest safe place.
- Use a doorway for shelter only if it is in close proximity to you and if you know it is a strongly supported, loadbearing doorway.
Stay inside until the shaking stops and it is safe to go outside. Research has shown that most injuries occur when people inside buildings attempt to move to a different location inside the building or try to leave.
- Be aware that the electricity may go out or the sprinkler systems or fire alarms may turn on.
- DO NOT use the elevators.
- DO NOT turn on the gas again if you turned it off; let the gas company do it. Further do not use matches, lighters, camp stoves or barbecues, electrical equipment, appliances until you are sure there are no gas leaks. They may create a spark that could ignite.
Outdoor safety zones include:
In the open, away from buildings, trees, telephone and electrical lines. Elevated expressways, and bridges should also be avoided.
If an earthquake strikes and you are outside:
- Stay there.
- Move away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires.
- Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops. The greatest danger exists directly outside buildings, at exits and alongside exterior walls. Many of the 120 fatalities from the 1933 Long Beach earthquake occurred when people ran outside of buildings only to be killed by falling debris from collapsing walls. Ground movement during an earthquake is seldom the direct cause of death or injury. Most earthquake-related casualties result from collapsing walls, flying glass, and falling objects.
If in a moving vehicle:
- Stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in the vehicle. Avoid stopping near or under buildings, trees, overpasses, and utility wires.
- Proceed cautiously once the earthquake has stopped. Avoid roads, bridges, or ramps that might have been damaged by the earthquake.
If trapped under debris:
- Do not light a match.
- Do not move about or kick up dust.
- Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing.
- Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can locate you. Use a whistle if one is available. Shout only as a last resort. Shouting can cause you to inhale dangerous amounts of dust.
April 1st marked the beginning of Earthquake Preparedness month. Even though there are parts of the country that feel they do not have to prepare for this type of disaster, the suggested supplies for an earthquake mimic those supplies suggested for bad weather preparedness. Knowing what to do, before a disaster can make a big difference in how quickly you will be able to handle these types of emergencies if they happen to come your way.
This information has been made available by Ready Nutrition
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